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#1 by Bar , Mon Sep 11, 2017 11:29 pm

Many industries such as TV Tyson Chandler Jersey , Radio, Internet and Airlines have been transformed by robust communication technologies.Aging electric grid is the last frontier that is now poised to experienceintensevariations due to these smart technologies.

Smart technologies permitimproved control and monitoring of power, resulting in efficient consumption and distribution of energy. With smart grids T.J. Warren Jersey , utilities can manage the flow of power through their systems, while consumers can manage their appliances and use of energy at the household level.

The smart grid is a two-way transfer of energy and information. The entire energy chain, from generation to consumption Steve Nash Jersey , is controlled and monitored by smart grid devices. This is achieved only if the devices are connected and can communicate their status with each other throughout this chain.

There are two kinds of smart grid technologies available - wireline and wireless. Utilities can choose either one of the technologies, depending on their unique needs and their existing infrastructure. A recent estimate lists that wireline and wireless smart grid revenues are set to reach US$4.9 billion by 2016.

Wireline technologies:
Power Line Communication (PLC)
Often used inside the building to achieve load shedding in AMI
Low-cost and reliable to achieve two-way communications
Disadvantages:
Low bandwidth and point-to-point communication
Poses significant challenges in developing countries where the disturbances on transmission lines cause issues

Broadband over Power Lines (BPL)
Transmits data over power lines (LV and MV) too, but at a higher bandwidth
Disadvantages:
Poor tolerance for noise in the line Shaquille O'Neal Jersey , limited deployments, poor interoperability, and lack of standards
Can cause electromagnetic interference




Copper UTP
Offers choice of an analog modem Penny Hardaway Jersey , DSL or T1 speed and is widely available
Disadvantages:
The continuing expense

Optical Fiber
Secure and high-speed communication
Disadvantages:
Installation costs are higher and it is point to point

Internet Protocol (IP)
Ubiquitous
Low cost
Open standard protocol
Disadvantages:
Less reliability and security

Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
Unlimited bandwidth and is extremely fast
Disadvantage:
Higher costs

Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC)
It is fiber to the neighborhood or group of homes and coaxed into the home
Disadvantage:
Lack of control

Wireless technologies:
MAS (Multiple Address System radio)
Flexible, reliable and compact
Handle obstructions better
Point to multipoint communication
Disadvantage:
Limited bandwidth


Paging Networks
Cost effective for one way messaging
Disadvantage:
Can be expensive and most systems tend to be closed and proprietary

Spread Spectrum Radio
Point to multi-point communication
Good for last mile connection
Disadvantages:
The line of sight requirement and continuous frequency hopping

WiFi
Very high market penetration
Disadvantages:
The limited distance of 100 to 250m
Poor reception in buildings

WiMAX
Up to 75 MBS bandwidth over 10 to 30 miles
This bandwidth is a savior when an environmental disaster strikes a densely populated area and all smart meters start communicating the outages at same time
Can handle increased traffic
An ideal backhaul medium for in-premise WiFi and zigbee devices
Disadvantages:
Higher costs
Poor market adoption

ZigBee
Low cost
Low power technology
Uses unlicensed spectrum
Enables the smart meter to communicate with home appliances which helps to shed the load
Constituted of mesh technology
Ensures interoperability among home appliances
Disadvantages:
Limited distance
Inability to penetrate concrete walls

3G Cellular
Low cost solution to enable long-range communication both within the substation and from home to the substation
Can be rolled out quickly using the existing cellular infrastructure
Disadvantages:
Can become unreliable if natural disaster strikes and takes out cellular infrastructure

TDMA Wireless (Cellular)
This is an Open IS-136 Standard, which was predominant in few countries. This technology has no future and is almost obsolete.

CDMA Wireless
Widely available
Cost effective
Disadvantage:
Heavy traffic can overwhelm the network

EDGEGSM
Widespread across the globe
Provides a very cost effective means to achieve AMI
Disadvantages:
Heavy traffic can prove to be overwhelming in this case as well

VSAT Terminal
Widely used today for remote monitoring and control of transmission and distribution substations proven and quick implementation
Disadvantages:
High costs
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